FPGA-Based Real-Time Simulation of Nonlinear Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines for Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Emulation Systems


This paper presents an FPGA-based real-time simulation system of a nonlinear permanent magnet synchronous machine and its qualification for power hardware-in-the-loop emulation systems. The machine model considers the magnetic anisotropy of the rotor, the saturation of the iron as well as dynamic cross-coupling effects between the direct- and quadrature axis of the machine. A specifically designed high performance signal processing system is developed to calculate the machine behavior with a frequency of 1.5 MHz. The developed model calculates the state variables of the machine as well as the counter voltage for an emulation converter in a way that the coupling network of the power hardware-in-the-loop emulation test bench could be equipped with any inductance. Measurements validate the proper function of the machine model and demonstrate the accurate solution of the nonlinear differential equation system of an anisotropic synchronous machine with nonlinear magnetics in real-time.